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Automated candle making system

Product developed as part of a collaboration between teachers and industry. The particularity of this automated system is to possess a variety of technologies used (electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic).

Real manufacturing :

This automated system represents a manufacturing line of paraffin-type "flat heater" candles and is divided into two parts.
A first part makes it possible to manufacture paraffin lozenges with or without color and a second part can offer the possibility of crimping and cutting the bit to length and to assemble the assembly in a bucket and to condition the finished product in boxes. The finished product is perfectly usable.

Recyclable product :

The finished product is recyclable using the shredder, which limits the supply of material

Technical specifications :

Module 1 

1 / Operative part :

- Conversion of paraffin into granules or lozenges in the case of powder recycling,
- Manual filling of paraffin powder in the hopper consisting of a worm to fill the mixer,
- Determination of the powdered dye (s) using alveolar proportioners,
- Mixing paraffin and dye (s) with a mixer.
- Determination of the mixture with a honeycomb doser,
- Delivery of the dose using a pneumatic cylinder above the mold,
- Compression using a hydraulic cylinder,
- Ejection using a pneumatic cylinder,
- Evacuation of the candles at the exit of the plate (with the drilling allowing to receive the wick for the 2nd part) ..

2 / Sensors : 

- 4 inductive sensors,
- 2 high-pressure inductive detectors,
- 3 capacitive detectors for pulverulent,
- 5 detectors on cylinders,
- 1detector of force, electronic interface with analog output,
- 1 stealth detector with security logic block,
- 1 electronic pressure switch with display and analogue output.

Module 2

1 / Operative part :

- Control of the height of the pellet by means of an optical fiber,
- Feeding the pellets using a conveyor and an indexing table to the different positions,
- Food cups using a vibrating bowl,
- Separation of the cups using a pneumatic cylinder,
- Cups brought to the crimping station by means of a pneumatic cylinder,
- Supply of the wick using a pneumatic gripper,
- Crimping the cup with the wick and cutting the wick using 2 pneumatic cylinders,
- Feeding and removal of the bucket on the pellet with 2 pneumatic cylinders,
- Evacuation of the candles at the exit of the plate by means of a pneumatic rotary cylinder,
- Formation of rows of candles using a rodless pneumatic cylinder,
- Destocking empty boxes (bottom of the box) using a rodless pneumatic cylinder,
- Plating and turning the box using a compact cylinder and a pneumatic rotary cylinder,
- Removal of the lid and evacuation of the box with the aid of a rodless pneumatic cylinder.

4 / Sensors :

- 4 optical fibers with amplifiers for feeding pellets, cups, cups,
- 1 electric photo detector for feeding pellets,
- 1 inductive detector for the presence of the buckets,
- 25 detectors and electronic on the cylinders,
- 3 micro cells for feeding the boxes.

5 / Command part :

- A TELEMECANIQUE TSX 37 PLC with discrete analog inputs / outputs,
- Remote digital inputs / outputs,
- An operating dialogue terminal console, allowing to enter the system parameters,
- A control cabinet on module 1,
- 2 control cabinets on module 2,
- A PC supervisor connected to the PLC using an RS232-RS485 converter.

6 / Supervision :

Supervision allows status visualization, system faults. It is also used for driving and monitoring the system using several screen pages available to the user including animated grafcets.

7 / Presentation :

- Fully characterized with front opening, Overall dimensions: Module 1: W x W x H = 800 x 1950 x 2000mm, Module 2: W x W x H = 800 x 2200 x 2000mm,

8 / Teaching characteristics :

The cycle is described in the form of Grafcets and the Gemma (Study Guide of Walking and Stopping Modes). The different actions are described in the form of tasks, grouped in a task map at the level of the program structure.

9 / Educational applications :

- Industrial maintenance,
- Functional analysis of the system,
- Automatism,
- Dialogue between console
- PLC, and supervision
- PLC,
- Industrial mechanics.

9.1 Automated System Driving :

- Production line operation:
- Using the man / machine interface,
- And supervision,
- These 2 components allow to enter the necessary parameters to the operation of the automated system
Number of candles made, defects, lack of matter; as well as inform the user about the status of the channel at any time.

9.2 Industrial mechanics :

- Study of the technological choices selected for the operative part according to certain characteristics (speed, stroke, storage capacity, cycle time ...).

9.3 Automatism :

- Man / machine dialogue using the dialogue console and supervision:
- Visualization of the defects, and the state of the machine at each moment (synoptic of the different parts, grafcets, animated gemma),
- Visualization of the state of sensors and motors.

Study of the operating and stopping modes :

- Possibility to operate the machine according to 2 modes: - Normal operating mode (F1), - Step by step in the disorder (F4).

Study the network architecture: Exchange of information between the dialogue console, the PLC

 the supervisor ... Functional analysis of the system :

- Identification and cutting of the automated system into tasks,
 - Search for anteriorities between tasks,
 - Development of grafcets.Study of the cadences with the coordination of the tasks for the normal operation:
 - Optimization of the rates,
- Comparison between the actual behavior of the system and the time simulation of the operating cycle.

9.4 Industrial maintenance :

Fault finding: - The used remote I / O offers the possibility to simulate faults easily,
 - The connectors to each sensor allow their replacement by a defective sensor,
 - Diagnosis assistance using the dialogue panel and the supervisor. Maintenance of the mechanical elements after a certain number of hours (as indicated in the manufacturer's instructions): For the dye feeders, the mixer and the dosing hopper after a number of hours of use:
- Cleaning the hoppers,
- Cleaning the worm,
- Cleaning the mixer.

For the mold after a certain number of hours of use :
For the hydraulic unit : - Checking the oil level, - Adjusting the pressure, - Adjusting the speed limiter. - Adjusting the tension of the belt, - Centering the belt with respect to the structure of the belt. Mixture dose translation module: - Check and adjustment of the compression spring. For the force sensor under the dosing hopper: - Calibration of the sensor.
For all electrical, mechanical and pneumatic equipment: - Check or replace parts according to the manufacturer's recommendations, listed in the pedagogical file.For the supply of wicks after a certain number of hours: - Cleaning of the parts allowing the guidance of the waxed wick.For guiding edges under the indexer and at the output of the indexer: - Cleaning the parts to remove paraffin residues.
For pneumatic cylinders : - Check the position of the sensors (ILS).


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